In 1976, he graduated with honors from the law faculty of Krasnoyarsk State University.
From 1976 to 1980, he was research assistant, postgraduate student at Tomsk State University. In the same place he defended his thesis for the degree of candidate of legal sciences on the topic "Conflicts between convicts accompanied by violent assaults (based on materials from high security penal colonies)".
From 1981 to 1993, he was an assistant, Senior Lecturer, Associate Professor of the Department of Criminal Law, Senior Researcher at Krasnoyarsk State University. From 1986 to 1988, he was a Fellow of the Institute of Foreign and International Criminal Law. with M. Planck based in Freiburg, Germany.
In 1994, at Tomsk State University, he defended his thesis for the degree of Doctor of Law on the topic "Social and integrative role of criminal law" (specialty "Criminal law and criminology; criminal executive law").
In 1993, he was appointed head of the legal department of the Krasnoyarsk Krai Administration.
In the same year, Uss was nominated as a candidate to the Federation Council from the Yevenk Autonomous Okrug.
From 1994 to 1995, he became a Deputy of the Federation Council of the 1st convocation, and a member of the Committee on International Affairs.
From 1995 to 1997, Uss was Deputy Governor of Krasnoyarsk Krai, under Valery Zubov, and supervised public order and legal issues.
On 7 December 1997, Uss was elected a deputy of the Legislative Assembly of the Krasnoyarsk Krai from the electoral bloc "Union of Business and Order - the Future of the Territory". In January 1998 he was promoted as the Chairman of the Legislative Assembly.
Since 1998, by ex officio, he was a member of the Federation Council, and was a member of the Committee on International Affairs.
In March 2001, Uss joined the Unity party.
On 23 December 2001, he was reelected as a deputy, and on 9 January 2002, he was the chairman of the Legislative Assembly of the Krasnoyarsk Krai.
In December 2001, he resigned as a member of the Federation Council in accordance with the law on the new procedure for forming the upper house of the Russian parliament.
In 2002, he ran for the governor of the Krasnoyarsk Krai, took first place in the first round on 8 September gaining 27.6% of the vote, and went to the second round. In the second round of elections he won 42% of the votes, but lost to the Governor of the Taimyr Autonomous Okrug Aleksandr Khloponin, with more than 48%.
On 15 April 2007, he was elected a deputy of the Legislative Assembly of the united Krasnoyarsk Krai, and at the first session of the parliament of the united Krasnoyarsk Krai (May 14, 2007), which Uss was the Chairman of the Legislative Assembly of the Krasnoyarsk Krai, (51 out of 52 deputies present voted for his candidacy, as one ballot paper was considered invalid).
Governor of Krasnoyarsk Krai.
On 29 September 2017, by a decree of the President of Russia, Uss was appointed as the acting Governor of the Krasnoyarsk Krai. On 9 September 2018, Uss was elected governor of the Krasnoyarsk Krai, gaining 60.19% of the vote.
He officially took office on 29 September.