Mr Tharman Shanmugaratnam is Senior Minister in the Singapore Cabinet. He is also Coordinating Minister for Social Policies, and advises the Prime Minister on economic policies. He served as Deputy Prime Minister for eight years (until May 2019). Tharman is, concurrently, Chairman of the Monetary Authority of Singapore, Singapore’s central bank and financial regulator. He is also Deputy Chairman of the Government of Singapore Investment Corporation (GIC) and chairs its Investment Strategies Committee. Tharman chairs the Group of Thirty, an independent global council of economic and financial leaders. He led the G20 Eminent Persons Group on Global Financial Governance which in Oct 2018 proposed reforms for a more effective system of global finance for growth, sustainability and financial stability. He earlier chaired the International Monetary and Financial Committee (IMFC), the key policy forum of the IMF, for four years (from 2011). He currently also co-chairs the Advisory Board for the UN’s 2019 Human Development Report, focused on inequality. Tharman has spent his working life in public service. Besides serving as Deputy Prime Minister (2011-2019), he served as Coordinating Minister for Economic and Social Policies for four years (from 2015). Prior to that, he was Minister for Finance for eight years (from 2007) and Minister for Education for five years (from 2003). He did his university education at the London School of Economics, University of Cambridge and Harvard University.