Graduated from Moscow State University (Department of Philosophy), Holds a PhD in Political Science from MSU (2008) with an emphasis on History and Theory of Political Science.
Worked in the Institute of Mass Political Movements at the Russian-American University (1991-93), the Centre for Political Trends (1993-2003), Institute of Social and Political Research of the Russian Academy of Science (ISPI RAN) (1997-2003), Centre for Social Information ISPI RAN (2003-2006).
Since September 2003 has been Director General of the Russian Public Opinion Research Center (VCIOM), where he also heads Expert Council. Valery Fedorov is the member of VCIOM Board of Directors (since 2006), Chief Editor of the "Monitoring. Social and Economic Changes" scientific journal (since 2003), Research Adviser of the Political Science Department at the Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation (since 2013).
Fedorov is awarded the Order of Friendship, Medal of the Order of Merit for Motherland II class; Certificate of Merit for the Active Promotion and Organizing the Presidential Election Campaign from the Central Election Commission of the Russian Federation etc.