A states SME ecosystem plays an important role in the development of its socioeconomic functions. Economic development is driven by small and medium-sized enterprises, which create additional jobs and bring about an increase in tax revenues. The share of SMEs in GDP has been rising steadily throughout the world over the past few years. In Russia, however, it has stayed more or less stable. How can we determine the impact of the SME ecosystem on the economy? Can SMEs become a driver of economic growth in Russia? What could explain such a huge difference in SME development levels? How were high GDP shares for SMEs achieved in the worlds leading economies? Are these mechanisms applicable to Russia? What factors can drive the growth of SMEs? How can Russian small and medium-sized enterprises integrate into the supply chains of foreign businesses?