The telecoms industry, which for a long time was one of the most profitable sectors of the Russian economy, is stagnating. Given that the mobile economy makes up only 3.8% of Russias GDP (according to the RAEC), market participants are looking for new sources of growth. Currently, many believe that the creation of mobile virtual network operators (MVNO) represents a promising direction of development. They are radically changing the format of relations between customers and companies from a wide range of areas of the economy. Smartphones have allowed consumers to access an entire spectrum of services. These devices are supported by traditional operators. By launching MVNOs, market players can offer their clients unique services directly through the telecoms companys infrastructure and eliminate the intermediary operator. This has given sceptics a reason to assert that an MVNO boom will lead to an imbalance of forces in the market, losses for traditional cellular operators, and a negative impact on the Russian economy. Opponents cite the experience of European countries: MVNOs, which take up to 40% of the market there, promote competition and improve service in various areas of the digital economy. In Russia, where the share of MVNOs is only 2.6%, the mass launch of virtual network operators could transform not only telecoms, but also other sectors of the economy, including banking, industry, the public sector, transport, retail, and other areas. Customers will receive convergent services, and the economy will receive the resources it needs to rejuvenate. Who is right?