To effectively take the Russian fuel and energy sector forward and to utilize the potential raw material base, it is of vital importance to equip the country with its own strategically important technologies. Joint efforts in this area from the state and industry leaders have led to considerable progress being made. One successful area has been gas turbines, their production, monitoring, disgnostics and servicing. In the oil and gas industry, we have seen developments in technologies and equipment for extracting hard-to-recover oil, offshore operations, LNG production, and our ability to provide catalysts for oil refineries and petrochemical plants. International cooperation between scientists and technologists has also been growing rapidly, with foreign partners willing to cooperate on the Russian market and world arena. What have the policies for import substitution in the fuel and energy sector pursued jointly by the state and industry players achieved today? Is the current and projected future demand enough to drive the continued and effective development of import substituting technologies and equipment? Are additional state support measures required for the further development of manufacturing and servicing equipment in the Russian fuel and energy sector? What are the prospects for further reducing the dependence of the fuel and energy sector on imported technologies and equipment? Are potential foreign markets willing to acquire equipment manufactured in Russia, and who could assist Russian machine-builders in entering the international market?