Developments in technology are making the international energy sector ever more global in nature, and energy ever more accessible. At the same time, the climate agenda is aimed at minimizing any negative impact on the environment. Every country is participating in this process in its own way, as it simultaneously develops and implements new technologies. This is resulting in changes to the global energy balance, demand for energy resources and technologies, and the structure of the economy. For Russia, as for other countries, questions regarding the optimal strategy for development of the fuel and energy industry under these new conditions are becoming increasingly urgent. What does the future have in store for the cornerstone of present-day energy hydrocarbons? What are the prospects for the cleanest of the hydrocarbons gas? Is it the fuel of the future, or is its potential limited by competition with renewable energy sources? How can we best use the potential of hydrocarbons for developing the national and global economies? How can investment into energy be attracted in uncertain times? Where is the investors attention focused? How can a balance be struck between investment profitability and energy security in the global economy and the economies of individual states?