Regulation in municipal solid waste management has recently undergone a major transition to a new model. Each region now has its own waste management plan and accompanying programme, and competitive processes were organized to select regional operators. These regional operators now serve as a one-stop shop for all matters related to waste disposal, closing illegal landfills, organizing sorting and recycling, and taking all remaining waste to disposal sites. Has the waste disposal industry become more effective and civilized? What challenges do regional and municipal governments face? What is the best way to start working with a regional operator, and how can the transition to the new regulation system be made with the minimum of disruption? Is it possible to attract investment in infrastructure? What needs to be done to ensure that every town and city in Russia no matter what size is clean, green, and pleasant to live in?