The government is increasing investment in developing the healthcare system and expenditures on providing medical services under Mandatory Health Insurance (OMS) are rising by the year. Even so, the current life expectancy is still well below target set in the Russian Federation National Development Goals up to 2030. This means that the need is more acute than ever for Russia to develop value-oriented healthcare based on value as the outcome of the entire process by which medical care is provided not only the eyes of the doctor and the healthcare system, but also those of the patient. Implementation of a value-oriented approach makes possible a maximally effective distribution of available financial resources and formation of a patient-centric healthcare system in which control is exercise not over the processes and scope of medical care but the outcomes vital to the patient achieved by the joint efforts of various medical specialists and information collaboration between medical services. What is of value to the healthcare system, the doctor and the patient? Is Russia ready to make the transition to a value-oriented healthcare model? How should the process be arranged for introducing value-oriented approaches to the system for exercising quality control over medical care? What changes would the OMS system require to transfer to payment for medical care depending on treatment outcomes?