After all, we began to systematically engage in innovation policy not 30 years ago, we started in the mid-2000s. And this is connected with the names of Andrey Fursenko and Herman Gref. But even this period, more than 15 years, is a very significant one. The national innovation system has been created, we have all the national innovation institutions, we have many engineering centres, as well as development institutions that deal with innovative technologies. We have two main results, in my opinion. Thanks to innovations entire industries have emerged in the country. Pharmaceuticals is one example. Today, we produce the most modern pharmaceuticals, which not all countries can produce. Composite materials are a fairly powerful industry. Polymer chemistry is another strong industry. Right now, an industry of drones is being created, as well as air, and land, and sea vessels — Andrei Belousov, First Deputy Prime Minister of the Russian Federation.
In our study "30 Years of Innovation in Russia" we divided these 30 years into three stages. The 90s are saw the first steps, 2001 to 2012 was a period of high expectations, and until 2021 was the period of getting rid of illusions. This periodization fits nicely in the Gartner Hype Cycle stages. Now, there is some hope for the slope of enlightenment. In certain periods, one or another type of policy dominated, linear, project, ecosystem, it established itself as a standard in the 90s. It means that you create a complex network of suppliers and consumers of your innovations, let all the flowers bloom. And you moderate this process. Needless to say, it doesn't work on its own. The ecosystem does not work without linear production. Without a design mode, the system does not function. So, ideally, they need to be combined. The system of development institutions started in the early 2000s. Perhaps, so far, nothing has really worked out for us, because we have not found a balance. Russia needs a new innovation policy. So far, it has not developed into a single synergistic line. It is necessary to form a single centre of responsibility for innovation management. We need to launch a large-scale programme of technological projects, a design mode. We need to encourage successful high-growth high-tech companies — Dan Medovnikov, Director of the Innovation Management Institute, Graduate School of Business, National Research University Higher School of Economics.