Economic Mythology and the Problem of Sustainable Development
Studying history will help avoid mistakes in the future
We <…> have prepared a book called ‘Crystal growth. Russian economic miracle’. <…> The econo-my in 1929–1955 grew 14 times. It became Europe’s largest and the world’s second largest econo-my. <…> We can form our own historical capital for the future economic development by borrow-ing our own best practices. <…> It is not about history repeating itself. We just need to use the ideas, concepts and mechanisms that worked — Alexander Galushka, Vice President of the Civic Chamber of the Russian Federation.
A new technology cycle requires a new model
Today, we are entering a new technology cycle. <…> A competition among models will help select the most effective model. The world is now breaking into separate communities of states that compete. We see China as a centre of such a community. <…> We understand what America does as a centre. The question is can we adopt the Chinese model or the American one? We understand that we can’t because each of those models is good for the previous cycle. The next model will be shaped by competition among those large communities. We will have to create such a community one way or another — Andrey Bezrukov, President, Technological Sovereignty Exports Association; Professor, Department of Applied International Analysis, MGIMO University.
Today, the world is facing the threat of a multilateral crisis that impends the sustainable develop-ment — Moon Sung-Hyun, Chairman, Economic, Social, and Labor Council, Republic of Korea.
Human resources are any country’s key resources
In 2012, the 18th CCP Congress emphasized that China will continue building a socialist system with features unique to China. <…> China will adhere to the policy where people are key to further de-velopment. China will place its stakes on innovation, as well as research and technology advance-ment. It will help the country boost its high-quality development. <…> This development will help us focus on key problems — Kong Dan, Chairman of the Board, CITIC Reform and Development Research Foundation.
A rapid population growth as a feature of developing countries is a popular myth. <…> It is not true. <…> We are far behind <…> a whole number of developed countries. <…> Another popular myth is that population growth means costs. We believe it means investing in the future — Igor Shchegolev, Presidential Plenipotentiary Envoy to the Central Federal District.
There is a need for the highest efficiency in strategic planning, stimulating innovation, and new methods of public administration that will ensure a stable effect throughout the whole economy. <…> What matters here is innovation and creative efforts of all the people — Ji Lin, Vice President, Economic and Social Council of the People's Republic of China.
Regions need help in achieving national goals
Economic development will not be possible without new jobs and operations. <…> We target a growth of 27% at the current investment-to-GDP ratio, while over the last 10 years we have not been able to exceed 20%. We believe that if regions are on their own, this breakthrough will be unattainable — Igor Shchegolev, Presidential Plenipotentiary Envoy to the Central Federal District.
When we look at the ambitious targets set by the President, we realize that they cannot be achieved with traditional, standard methods or by simple reallocation of budget funds. First of all, a little over one-third of the GDP is reallocated through the budget, while existing national targets require a lot more resources. <…> This is why private investment becomes the cornerstone. <…> High-quality efficient planning can ensure that private investment will help national goals, instead of just helping commercial projects — Artur Niyazmetov, Deputy Presidential Plenipotentiary Envoy to the Central Federal District .
Let’s take regional or infrastructure development with low return rates. For example, return rates for a dam – the main facility for a hydropower plant – are 40–50 years at best. Who will give money for such a long time? This is why the issue of national sovereignty in currency issue for long-term projects is highly relevant — Alexander Osipov, Governor of Trans-Baikal Territory .
Current demographic situation
If our demographic situation continues to develop or degrade at the same rate as now, the ques-tion is who are we trying so hard for? If the pessimistic forecasts are right and the population con-tinues to decline, what economic growth can we really expect? — Igor Shchegolev, Presidential Plenipotentiary Envoy to the Central Federal District.
The government plays the key role in developing the economy
Only the government can pull the economy into the new technology cycle. Infrastructure costs and risks are too high for private business to invest <…> without government stimulation and control — Andrey Bezrukov, President, Technological Sovereignty Exports Association; Professor, Department of Applied International Analysis, MGIMO University.
We target a well-planned and well-balanced system, where we would set the development track. We would like support measures to target the areas we as government need instead spreading them thin — Artur Niyazmetov, Deputy Presidential Plenipotentiary Envoy to the Central Federal District .
The pandemic has driven the situation of uncertainty for the whole world. <…> Under such difficult conditions, we must discuss ways to develop the global economy and to join our efforts. <…> We work hard to help the government cooperate with the market. They should align and go hand in hand — Ji Lin, Vice President, Economic and Social Council of the People's Republic of China.
Stimulating birth rate growth
A normal economic growth is only possible if the aggregate birth rate <…> exceeds 2. <…> The Rus-sian Federation has 1.5 on average. If we keep in mind that some families have only one child, the solution is to raise the number of families with multiple children. This is precisely what the Presi-dent said. <…> This is what the Demography national project should focus on — Igor Shchegolev, Presidential Plenipotentiary Envoy to the Central Federal District.
The government should work more with investors and business
We have created a centre for such indicative planning under our District’s Investment Council. Let me remind you that in pursuance with the presidential order each district has an investment pleni-potentiary, who is in charge of dealing with investors — Igor Shchegolev, Presidential Plenipotentiary Envoy to the Central Federal District.
Together with its colleagues from the Government and the Accounts Chamber, the Civic Chamber has analyzed all the national projects and targets. They also came up with specific suggestions that may be and – I believe – will be reviewed by the relevant bodies of the State Council. <…> The Civil Chamber is becoming an active expert agency that does not just come up with suggestions, but is capable of bringing them to life — Alexander Zhuravsky, Deputy Head of the Office of the President of the Russian Federation for Public Projects.