Improvements in the availability of drugs require implementation of such key elements of the system as smart selection, affordable prices, adequate quantitative assessment, and forecasting, timely procurement as well as proper storage and distribution. Over the past years Russia has significantly reduced the time it takes to introduce drugs into the market, while maintaining the quality standards, and taken measures to prevent the circulation of counterfeit products, as well as expanded the list of vital and essential drugs. Notwithstanding factors such as emergence of more expensive high-quality drugs, the expansion of the list of such drugs, and the support provided to domestic innovations, insufficient efforts have been made to improve the distribution and procurement operations and track the true efficiency of the drugs. Two key priorities for the strategy have been identified: introduction of insurance covering drugs and an increase in the state funding of drugs. The effective use of the funds largely determines the success of the National Drug Policy, and the quality of state regulation could be a major benchmark compared with the increase in costs. Should the growth in public investment be linked to greater state regulation requirements? How can the access to medicines be ensured? What difficulties do manufacturers, distributors, and doctors encounter when working within the government procurement frameworks and how can they be overcome? How much funding will be required to achieve significant results? How should targets be set in the National Drug Policy? What is the demand in the Russian domestic market for innovative drugs?