A couple of hundred years ago, pneumonia and appendicitis were a fatal diagnosis and surgeons had no idea about the need to wash their hands before surgery. Medicine is moving forward alongside technological progress. Infectious disease epidemics are becoming a thing of the past, giving way to new, previously unknown diseases, for which neither treatment nor their consequences are yet fully understood. Today, advanced technologies not only allow for unique surgeries and diseases prevention, but also new treatments. One of the goals of the National Medicines Policy 2030 is to develop domestic innovative medicines. The development of a new medicine from the idea to implementation takes more than ten years and requires huge investments with high risks. Biomedical cell products (BMCP) have become a new driver for the global medicine market. Russia has already undertaken vast research and development in this field that might allow it to overtake the U.S. and the EU in terms of BMCP output over the next few decades. What are Russias priorities for developing new medicines? Which agency should manage the programme for the development of innovative medicines? What measures of state support and stimulus of commercialization are needed for the BMCP industry and the creation of innovative medicines? How attractive are investments in biomedical cell technologies? Will cell products become the magic pill to combat 21st century diseases?