Over the medium term, the Russian economy is expected to see the size of the working-age population decline by more than 3 million by 2026, with about 400,000 people leaving the workforce every year. At the same time, Russia continues to be a donor of highly skilled workers for economically developed countries. Immigration flows are not fully capable of meeting the needs of the economy, including future needs for skilled and highly skilled professionals. In the long run, unfavourable demographic trends and changes in the structural needs of the labour force impacted by new technologies will increase the imbalance between supply and demand and stimulate new mechanisms to meet the needs of this market. What measures can contribute to accelerated technological renewal and the development of the Russian economy? How can high-performance jobs with decent wages be created? What changes does Russian immigration legislation require to attract highly qualified foreign specialists to the country and retain them on a permanent basis?