Today, consumers are focused on receiving services, and the manufacturer who can provide a competitive offer is the one who gains most. This is true for transport, for electricity, and for digital technologies. But competitiveness is not just about fuel; its about the entire technological chain. Despite its apparent external conservatism, the oil and gas industry has always been one of the most high-tech in the world. For this reason, the development of technology in this industry moves at a rapid pace, and digitalization processes began here in the 1980s. Today, analytics based on huge bodies of data, UAVs, robotics, digital twins, and much more are already familiar attributes of the business processes of any oil and gas company. But what will happen next? The industry is facing a large number of external challenges: the development of alternative energy, growth in energy efficiency, internal competition, etc. How can Russia make use of the enormous potential of the fuel and energy complex to accelerate the technological evolution and digitalization of our economy, and where do the main barriers lie? When will there be a move away from the business strategy of selling oil and petroleum products to the supplying of digital services and technologies? Is it worth investing in petrochemistry and the chemical utilization of natural gas in the face of the growing demand for new materials?