Today, the competitiveness of science in Russia is vital to ensuring the independence and global competitiveness of the country. Unique research and innovation centres and mega science facilities are needed to respond to the significant challenges laid out in the Scientific and Technological Development Strategy of the Russian Federation. These research centres will ensure the transition to a fundamentally new domestic economy. A synchrotron and neutron research programme for 20192027 is currently being developed, with the aim of making a scientific breakthrough in this area. This unique research infrastructure is set to become a focal point for developing the intellectual potential of the nation. It will help create the right conditions for the influx of knowledge and technologies from global markets. International scientific and educational mega-clusters can be established at these research and innovation centres, which would attract talented young people from Russia and abroad, as well as Russian and foreign scientists and engineers. What should be the priority area of focus of synchrotron and neutron research to achieve breakthrough results? Which industries are in particular need of advanced infrastructure development programmes? What is the current status and prospects for international cooperation in the realm of synchrotron and neutron research?