The demographic problem is not limited to the birth and mortality rates. Population replacement, changes in its structure, the increase in life expectancy, and migration are becoming fundamental issues in the development strategies of most countries. Non-standard and systemic solutions are moving to centre stage. What kind of opportunities are opening up due to the fact that the population is ageing, and how can high growth rates be maintained? What measures can boost the birth rate and reduce poverty? How much can supporting women increase economic activity in general?