Trade and investment relations between Russia and Germany are among the most fruitful for Russia and EU countries, led by automotives, transport and infrastructure, energy and energy efficiency, machine engineering, and other manufacturing sectors. Industry 4.0 initiatives herald a potential revolution in approaches to production, but to harness the advantages and maintain competitiveness companies must invest in multiple areas simultaneously. What are the challenges and opportunities in adopting Industry 4.0 approaches to production? What strategies, standards, and business models should companies embrace in order to remain competitive? How might Russian and German industrial sectors collaborate more closely to implement the most modern and efficient means of production?