In the midst of the economic crisis in the 1990s, Finland developed a new competitiveness policy designed to support private sector innovation, while investment in R&D provided the catalyst for subsequent growth. At the same time, Russia, with its history of a planned economy, was widely seen to have established a strong record of human capital, particularly in comparison to economies with comparable levels of income. As the world is moving into a post-industrialist stage, the skills traditionally needed for work are changing, while digital platforms and socio-cultural changes create new challenges and opportunities for learning. From a company view-point, what makes a successful learning ecosystem? How can co-operation between educational institutes and enterprises be fostered? What steps can be taken to create competitive learning systems? What methods should elementary schools and high schools employ to develop entrepreneurial skills?