The first quantum revolution, which was marked by the development of physics in the first half of the 20th century, led to the emergence of nuclear weapons, transistors, lasers, and subsequently mobile telephone communications and the Internet. The end of the 20th century and the beginning of the 21st century was marked by a second quantum revolution whose consequences are still difficult to predict. This all led to the emergence of multiple quantum technologies, most of which are currently under development, while some are already in the stage of being applied on an experimental basis. One of the most promising areas in the development of quantum technologies is quantum computing, which will support the next round of technological breakthroughs and economic growth in many countries. Countries in which people have skills in creating quantum computers a device that can use quantum effects to solve problems that are not available to the most powerful «classic» supercomputers will be able to gain a long-term advantage and become leaders in the quantum race. But the main question is: what challenges will we face in the new quantum era?