The transport sector generates over 20% of the worlds greenhouse gas emissions. The global energy transition that is gaining momentum primarily aims to combat climate change, but new solutions need to be actively implemented to this end. The development of the electric vehicle and hydrogen transport industry significantly contribute to the decarbonization of the economy. Over the past 10 years, the number of electric vehicles in the world has grown from just a few to more than 10 million. At present, Russia is producing electric vehicles for public transport. In addition, a segment of electric vehicles is taking shape with models of different levels of readiness. For its part, hydrogen transport is still only in its earliest stages, however the development and scaling of such technologies in the foreseeable future will help to make hydrogen competitive as an energy source compared with traditional fuels, which will confirm its status as the new oil of the future. How can electric vehicles and hydrogen transport contribute to decarbonization? What will be the next technological challenges and barriers? What market share might such vehicles occupy in the near future? How much will an electric or hybrid car and charging infrastructure cost? What segments of the transport industry will hydrogen take over? How will Russia develop these segments?