There is an extremely wide range of views on where energy markets are headed over the next decade. At one extreme, some are calling for «peak oil demand» within the next decade driven by the rapid penetration of EVs, growing gas-for-oil substitution, and environmental limits on growth in plastics. In this vision, coal will be in structural decline and even natural gas growth will be limited by renewables penetration in power generation. At the other extreme, there is concern that the sharp decline in investment in new long-lived supply projects could lead to a shortage of oil, as shale growth slows while demographic factors in developing countries support an expansion in global energy demand. The S&P Global Platts session on Global Energy Industry Development Outlook to 2040 will examine the key fundamental, policy, and technology assumptions behind such forecasts and put forward a most likely outlook for the evolution of the long-term global energy market and outline what the world needs to do to achieve a trajectory towards a global temperature rise of less than 2 degrees Celsius. The session will also examine the potential impact on production, refining and energy demand in the energy industry.