Given the international tensions of recent years, the Russian fuel and energy industry needs to ensure that it has technological sovereignty and expertise in all the critical areas for its sustainable development. In this regard, the prospects for collaboration between energy and defence companies to diversify production appear to be promising. This will allow fuel and energy companies to acquire the high-tech products necessary for the effective development of Russias mineral resources, while defence companies could boost production and their technological capabilities. At the same time, the launch of fuel and energy equipment production facilities requires intersectoral cooperation. It will also require solutions to the financial, human and technological risks whose likelihood of occurrence and ultimate impact will depend directly on the measures undertaken and the implementation of inspection regimes. What are the prospects for applying defence industry expertise in the fuel and energy industry and what is the optimal business model by which defence and energy companies can collaborate? What promising technologies could increase the operational efficiency of energy companies? What should be done to accelerate the diversification of defence companies according to the nomenclature of the fuel and energy industries?