The development of the coal industry in recent decades has led to major changes in natural landscapes and the degradation of vegetation across vast areas. Mining has led to the pollution of the aquatic environment and the atmosphere, as well as a decrease in biological diversity. Dramatic changes to the environment occur over time. They are caused by the excavation to the surface of deep-seated rocks of past geological epochs that are not characteristic of modern landscapes. With increasingly stringent standards for environmental conservation, the market trend towards renewable sources of energy, and information transparency, improvement of production management policies is required, as well as the implementation of working methods in accordance with international standards for sustainable development. This is the key to both the success of coal companies in the global economy and to ensuring the energy security of the Russian Federation. What promising modern technologies are coal mining companies using to protect and preserve the environment and restore biodiversity around mines? What barriers to the successful and effective rehabilitation of the environment exist in the coal industry? What measures should be taken to boost derelict land reclamation and remediate environmental damage in the coal industry? Is there a need for incentive measures for coal companies to implement reclamation programmes and should amendments be introduced to the current legislation of the Russian Federation?