Due to increased demand, improved technologies and large-scale investments, petrochemicals are growing faster than the global economy. The prospects for future growth very much depend on the situation in the hydrocarbon markets, regional focus in terms of raw materials and production, and differences in industry incentives and regulatory mechanisms. At the same time, the global petrochemical industry is witnessing big changes in consumer preferences, demand for new materials, improvements in environmental standards and the development of a closed-loop economy based on recycling. Which internal and external challenges can change the paradigm for the development of the industry? What restrictions are preventing Russian producers from becoming more competitive in the global petrochemical markets? What are the expected recycling growth rates in Russia and the rest of the world?