The UN General Assembly identified 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and 169 related targets that countries must achieve by 2030. SDGs are a key part of a large system of targets and indicators, primarily for developing countries, aimed at eliminating poverty, preserving the planets resources, and ensuring prosperity for all. Responsible Consumption and Production and Climate Action (SDGs 12 and 13) propose doing more and better with fewer resources, through the use of rational consumption and production models and the efficient use of natural and energy resources, with a minimal impact on the climate. This is the primary principle behind the idea of a circular (closed-loop) economy and defines the contemporary green economic model. A circular economy is the most effective way of conserving energy, resources, and materials and plays an important role in changing methods of economic growth. Many countries, including China, the USA, South Korea, and the European Union, are actively integrating circular economy principles into their government policies. Countries in the EAEU have also identified circular or green economies as a strategic priority and are working towards this goal, taking into account national characteristics. What priorities do countries have with respect to energy and resource efficiency? Which countries have made progress towards transitioning to a green economy? How did they do this? What are the existing and potential roles of Eurasian integration? Is it possible to align unified national priorities and the speed with which they are achieved with a circular economy? Will green economic development issues become an effective instrument for further integration between countries in the region?