Street lighting is an important part of creating a pleasant urban environment. The correct choice of lighting for various functional spaces helps solve a range of challenges, from increasing safety on the streets at night, to creating a festive atmosphere during special occasions. When attractively illuminated, a citys sights become even more appealing to tourists, and new technologies are making it possible to increase the level of lighting without impacting energy consumption. Moscow has recently implemented a light and colour concept for the city, with visual comfort and artistic expression placed at the forefront. It is now one of the five best-lit cities in the world. Elsewhere, separate lighting projects are being successfully implemented in St Petersburg, Kazan, Vladimir, and numerous other cities in Russia. What experience can lie at the foundation when creating a citys lighting environment? What lighting standards and targets can be applied for cities of various sizes in Russia? What are the advantages of modern light sources and light management systems, and how might they be developed in the future?