The energy sectors of various countries need to respond to shared challenges arising from the climate agenda and the current technological revolution. Nations need to identify ways to limit greenhouse gas emissions, establish their position on the development of nuclear power, and solve issues caused by a deficit in infrastructure at a time marked by digitalization and a new wave of electrification. Naturally, when tackling these challenges, regulators consider aspects specific to each country: the structure of the economy, the availability of resources, environmental and social requirements, and others. At the same time, they need to strike a balance between the interests of consumers and producers with regards tariffs, and solve issues related to long-term energy security and environmental safety. Which of the regulators solutions have proved to be the most effective from the point of view of investment attractiveness, energy security, and public spending? What other parameters can be used to assess the effectiveness of government policy in the energy sector? Which new factors (the spread of electric cars, trade wars, technological equality etc.) may influence a change in government policy? Could government policy be used to prepare for a potential sea change in global energy?