The Russian Government first began implementing its priority programme to promote the integrated development of single-industry towns in July 2016. The programme encompasses 319 cities in 60 regions of the Russian Federation across eight federal districts. Under the direction of Russian Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev, the programme is expected to reach the following target indicators by the end of 2018: • Create more than 200,000 jobs not connected with the major city employer; • Attract investment in fixed assets amounting to RUB 317 billion; • Significant improvements to the quality of the urban environment. Who should be engaged to bring change in single industry towns and how are they to work with existing social communities in these cities? What are the best practices in human capital development that can be replicated across single-industry towns? Who are the experts that can assist in developing the necessary institutions for these towns and what training programmes are needed to manage the transition?