Over the last 3040 years, the role of knowledge and innovation in the socioeconomic development of society has been growing at an unbelievable pace. The innovative economy is today taking on a particular relevance as one of the mechanisms accelerating economic growth. Investment resources are playing a key role in this. There is currently a shortage of long-term investment in Russia, including in terms of resources from institutional investors in the innovation sector, at a time when contributions from such investors are forming a significant share of investments abroad. Startups serve as a major generator of innovative products. Every newcomer to innovative business dreams of raising a unicorn company. Giants like Uber and Airbnb have demonstrated that raising a unicorn really is possible! A programme is already being implemented in Russia to provide state support to national champions fast-growing companies with the potential to increase export revenue, although the growth of companies like these is limited unless significant investment can be attracted or they go public. Who are these unicorns exactly are they a myth, or a reality? Is there a future for Russian unicorn startups? Could the Moscow Exchange become a key mechanism for rearing companies like these? What government support tools could be used to help unicorn companies? How realistic is it for a Russian technology company to float on the Russian stock exchange? What conditions need to be put in place in order to attract funds from institutional investors into the innovation sector of the Russian economy? What new tools need to be developed for investment in innovative companies?