The twenty-first century has presented mankind with a number of major challenges that threaten the sustainable development of civilization. In order to overcome these challenges, new approaches to development must be found and the world must transition to new ways of producing and consuming energy. One of the possible solutions is the development of nature-like technologies, which include technologies that reproduce the systems and processes of living nature as technical systems and technological processes integrated into natural resource management. These are developed and implemented to restore the balance between the biosphere and the technosphere that humans have disrupted. What are the main priorities that have been identified in the field of nature-like technologies? What is the fundamental difference that sets a nature-like technosphere apart? How do large megascience research facilities promote nature-like technologies in Russia? What is the impact of nature-like technologies on the social and cultural challenges facing society? What role does the Kurchatov Institute play in the development of nature-like technologies and how could Russian development institutions support future nature-like developments?