Despite a fall in the quality of reserves at existing fields, the volume of oil extracted in Russia over the last five years has increased by 30 million tonnes annually. This is the result of the extended application of secondary and tertiary enhanced oil recovery techniques, penetration of new production regions, and more active development of hard-to-recover and shelf reserves. Within just a year, the volume of horizontal drilling in Russia increased by nearly 20% and accounted for 35% of the total volume of operational drilling, oil recovered on the continental shelf increased by 17%, and development of hard-to-recover reserves by 12%. A full set of measures have been developed and implemented in Russia in order to maintain the level of oil recovery achieved in the present economic environment and reduce reliance on suppliers of high-tech equipment. This includes government support measures for extraction from hard-to-recover reserves, an import substitution programme for critically important equipment, and new advances in scientific research and experimental design. Which technologies could help to increase the efficiency and environmental safety of Russian oil extraction? What projects that have been implemented or are being implemented are helping to reduce technology dependence? Is there potential for increasing recovery from mature and unconventional fields in the current economy?