The model for the sustainable socioeconomic development of Russias regions is based on global and national factors in achieving efficiency within these regions, which are competing for access to investment resources and human capital. New directions for regional structural policy: regional competitiveness as an objective and long-term resource for progress. What contemporary tools of government regional structural policy are the most relevant and productive? Where can room for modernization be found in the sectoral structure of Russias regions? How can a historically high level of regional diversity in terms of the level and dynamism of socioeconomic development be used to the countrys advantage? Can a compromise be found between international integration processes and the preservation of regional identity?