The development of single-industry municipalities has been identified as one of the main strategic directions for the Russian Federation until 2025 and consequently, the Russian Government is working to implement a priority programme focused on the integrated development of single-industry towns. The goal is to ameliorate the acute socioeconomic situation plaguing single-industry towns, caused by the layoff of workers by the major enterprises which dominate the towns, limited infrastructure, and the low investment attractiveness of these areas. How can we stimulate the creation of new jobs that are not related to the activities of the former core enterprises of these cities? What factors are hampering an increase in the investment attractiveness of these single-industry towns? What state support tools are the most effective for supporting single-industry towns? Is the economic structure of these single-industry towns changing together with the changing economic situation?