Investments in Russias energy sector over the past five years have exceeded RUB 18 trillion. The sector accounts for more than 25% of all investment in the nation every year. Modernization programmes that are ambitious in size and timescale are currently being implemented in the petroleum refining and electricity industries, new petrochemical facilities are being constructed, projects to develop natural resource deposits in Eastern Siberia and hard-to-recover oil fields are under way, new pipelines are being laid, and transport capacity is being expanded to the west and to the east. Completing these projects effectively is key to ensuring the Russian Federations energy security and economic development. Yet there are a number of global and local factors that make the industrys task more difficult. Over the past 50 years, in spite of all the technological breakthroughs, global productivity in major construction has barely increased. Whilst projects have become increasingly complicated, the methods and tools used to implement them have changed very little. According to McKinsey Global Institute, the level of digitization in the construction industry sits just above that of agriculture. As a result, an overwhelming majority of projects are experiencing considerable overruns in terms of completion date and budget and, when commissioned, the finished products often underperform. The successful implementation of megaprojects in Russia is being held back still further by a complex geopolitical situation, the fact that the domestic market for engineering, procurement, and construction contractors is at the early stages of development, the turbulence on the market for general construction contractors, the limited availability of highly competent project specialists to act as clients, and a number of specific regulatory limitations. What is the primary factor that is limiting the successful implementation of major investment projects in the Russian energy sector? Considering the current global political situation and development factors in the construction industry, which major investment project models would be most effective for the Russian energy sector (or its separate subsectors) in terms of meeting deadlines, staying within budget, and delivering quality products? In your opinion, what key role should the state play in improving the effectiveness of investment projects in the energy sector? Which new technologies are most promising and relevant to Russia in terms of increasing productivity in major construction projects?