Environmental issues and compliance with environmental legislation are becoming increasingly more important. The illegal emission of pollutants and challenging environmental position of several of the countrys industrial centres have led citizens to insistently express their discontent with the measures taken by supervisory bodies. This has sparked new initiatives to introduce independent public environmental supervision and assessments of existing and proposed facilities. A certain level of ambiguity about the procedure, powers, and liabilities of environmental supervision remains, which could lead to the abuse of powers or, in certain cases, widespread public misinformation. Furthermore, the development of certain industries and the ability of companies to enter highly competitive international markets have in some cases been impeded. This could also serve as a means to maintain the development of domestic industry in key sectors, develop new infrastructure, and maintain Russias energy independence. Does current Russian legislation support the notion of public environmental expertise? What are the official status, rights, and powers of civil eco-activists in Russia and abroad? How is the dialogue between government, business, and the environmental community being conducted today, and what is impeding finding the balance between diverging interests? How are other countries dealing with this challenge? What is the responsibility of environmental activists? Could a federal law on public environmental expertise improve the status of civil eco-activists and ensure impartial public control over the state of the environment?