In recent years, the strategy for successful development pursued by the national economic systems of the leading countries has been closely linked to superiority in research and development, the emergence of new knowledge, and the creation of innovative mass-market products. We are increasingly hearing that innovation is an absolute priority when determining a growth strategy. Historically, Russia has been one of the worlds scientific powerhouses: Russian science and engineering have made significant contributions to the sum of humanitys body of knowledge and technology. Russia has established a network of innovative regions that are able to quickly acquire knowledge and create innovative products. How can the innovation life cycle be properly supported, and how can the outcomes of scientific research be used to advance regional socioeconomic development? What should the long-term regional scientific and technological development strategy look like, and who should lead it? How should cooperation between centres of new scientific knowledge and innovative regions be organized?