Addressing major challenges in the development of the Arctic zone and the implementation of investment projects to develop the oil and gas complex and the infrastructure of the Northern Sea Route are linked to the involvement of significant human capital, the creation and development of residential areas, and the wellbeing of the environment and safe working conditions. The extreme climatic conditions of the North, such as exposure to cold, hypoxia, chemical pollution of the environment, a lack of essential trace elements, and a high prevalence of parasitic and infectious diseases caused by the warming of the Arctic climate, dictate what kind of nutrition may be provided and which preventive measures carried out in order to help minimize health risks, both for those arriving in the Arctic and the indigenous population. How can the health of those working in open areas of the Arctic be maintained? What are the priority areas of research and development in Arctic medicine? How may the prevention of infectious diseases among temporary residents and the local population of the Arctic be improved? What are the priorities in terms of preventive measures to ensure the sanitary and epidemiological wellbeing of those living in the North?