Traditionally, fishing continues to be one of the key industries in the economy of the Arctic regions. Modern conditions dictate the need for taking a more prudent attitude towards the industry and a more rational, economic approach to fish processing, for a transition to products with high added value, and for the need for high-tech production methods, including on ships, during fishing. The development of industrial aquaculture in the Arctic region requires separate consideration. Promising areas include the development of marine terminals for integrated servicing of fishing vessels, improving port infrastructure, and the ability to deliver fish and fish products from the Far East along the Northern Sea Route. How may we preserve the unique northern territories, where fishing is the main kind of work available? What types of state support are relevant to the Arctic territories, and which of these are the most effective? What is needed in order to preserve the biodiversity of the Arctic seas, sustainable fishing, and aquaculture? What kinds of modern technologies may be used in new fishing vessels, for the development of aquaculture, and in the construction of fish processing plants in the northern territories? What are the prospects for the Northern Sea Route for the delivery of fish products? How may the attractiveness of Arctic fish ports be increased?