Achieving life expectancy of 78 by 2024 is a multifaceted challenge, dependent to equal degrees on the populations income level, lifestyle, and on the effectiveness of the healthcare system. Largely thanks to a system of medicine provision, developed countries have mostly succeeded in increasing life expectancy over the last 20 years. In Russia, access to free drugs through doctors prescriptions is today enjoyed only by those citizens who receive social benefits or who suffer from specific illnesses. Government expenditure in Russia is three times lower in this respect than in European Union countries with a similar level of economic development. Implementing a system of universal medicine provision will help to stop serious illnesses from getting worse and leading to complications, reduce the use of more long-term forms of healthcare, and have a positive impact on social attitudes. How much needs to be spent on medicine supply on a national scale? What is the governments role in this expenditure? What should the implementation of a universal medicine provision system begin with? How can long-term medicine needs be determined? Are there provisions for reducing the costs of medicinal products by increasing the volume of public procurement?