Russia is currently facing a serious demographic challenge in the form of a declining birth rate. In order to overcome this problem, key objectives need to be met: people need strong motivation to have their first and subsequent children, there must be reproductive healthcare for both women and men, child mortality needs to be reduced, and young families need to be provided with affordable housing. Three federal projects focused on solving these challenges have already been launched: Financial Support for Families with Newborn Children, Facilitating Employment for Women Establishing Conditions for Pre-School Education of Children up to the Age of Three (with the objective of increasing the birth rate from 1.6 to 1.7 by 2024), and Developing Child Healthcare (with the objective of reducing infant mortality and mortality among children aged 017 by 20% by 2024). How can a replacement fertility level be ensured in Russia? Are the measures envisaged by federal projects to create conditions which will encourage people to have children sufficient? What new technologies could help increase the birth rate? What are the roles of different agencies, and of the family, in reducing mortality among children and teenagers? What must be done in healthcare to ensure the health of our children: prevention through inoculation, improved primary care, or public health campaigns?