The key driver of a new, knowledge-based economy is human capital, an area where investments can contribute to a countrys social and economic development. Human capital plays a vital role in the development of new economy of the Russian Far East. The large-scale creation of new production facilities in the Far East, initiated as a result of new development mechanisms, has brought to the forefront questions of how the macroregion can attract and retain the workforce it requires, how young specialists can be trained in areas that are in demand, and how conditions conducive to doing business can be maintained. By 2025, there will already be more than 115,000 new modern and highly productive jobs in the Russian Far East. How can we develop and invest in human capital in the Russian Far East? How can regions accumulate and develop their human capital and come out on top in the competition for people? How will businesses in the future economy ensure the growth of human capital? What modern tools and approaches can be used to assess the level of human capital?