Economic and technological progress has always been a function of human talent and energy. Today, as the role of natural resources, production facilities, and other material assets in supporting economic growth becomes increasingly limited, and the volatility of financial markets remains high, human capital is a key investment. Long-term economic development strategies in a number of nations already prioritize this factor. Russia has traditionally been ranked quite high in the world ratings of human capital development. But has this potential been fully realized? What skills do the national economy and society need at a time when a new industrial revolution that may completely change the structure of employment is taking place? What problems and tasks in human capital development need to be addressed at the government level? Does Russia need a national human capital development strategy?