Science and technology play a predominant role in providing solutions to modern humanitys critical challenges. Science itself is evolving as it confronts new challenges, but to what extent are these changes the result of external factors? What is currently driving scientific development internationally and in Russia: responding to external demands or the sequential logic of R&D activities? What are the key foundations of modern-day scientific and technical development and how might this change? What are some of the potential social, economic, and political impacts that can be derived from effective approaches to scientific development?