Today, African countries face major challenges. Rapid population growth and the worsening energy crisis are constraining economic growth on the continent. The poor transport infrastructure, reduced access of the population to health services, low level of education and food supply insecurity are severely hampering Africas efforts to improve the quality of life in the region. It is clear that to solve these problems a large-scale development programme is required, including a strategy based on achieving the UN Sustainable Development Goals. Nuclear technologies can become a driver for socioeconomic development and a comprehensive solution to the systemic continent-wide problems. What is the first step that should be made in order to promote nuclear technologies in Africa? Is the use of nuclear technologies in the energy sector sufficient to implement the ambitious developmental plans for the region? What opportunities will open up for African countries after the implementation of nuclear technologies? Which approach to the implementation of national nuclear programmes is the most effective for newcomer countries?