The diamond mining industry is key to the economies of several African countries, accounting for a significant portion of income from exports. Today, diamond mining faces a number of industry-wide challenges, attempts to tackle which will determine its future. What is the potential for sharing experiences in diamond mining technology and industrial safety? What form could cooperation in sorting and marketing take? How can Russian and African companies work together in these areas? What can be done to ensure customer trust in diamonds? How can effective and responsible diamond supply chains be built from Africa to the global market? What should the role of industry organizations be in this matter?