The accelerated development of both Russias and Africas economic potential is inextricably linked to scientific output and the improvement of general education and professional training. The 21st century has heralded the rise of the knowledge economy. Scientific research and development results in new products and industries, and is able to make a vital contribution to tackling current social and economic challenges facing our countries. The Soviet Union made an invaluable contribution to developing the scientific and educational potential of a number of African countries. What can Russia offer today in terms of developing science and education in Africa, particularly as part of the African Unions Agenda 2063? What new opportunities does cooperation in science and education with countries of the African continent present to Russia?