Today infrastructure, energy, and housing construction are the most promising sectors for investment in Africa. In the past, development of the energy sector was not a priority for most African countries. That was because despite the fact that the majority of the population did not have sufficient access to electricity, there was enough energy to serve the mining and extraction industries developed by colonial powers. This issue remained a low-priority one for several years; however, today the energy agenda is beginning to play a key role on the continent. Even though Africas energy sector is vital for development, it remains one of the least understood parts of the global energy system, and very few international energy research centres possess reliable information about a particular region, or indeed operate there. Solar energy is finally taking root in hot countries, which are beginning to fully exploit their most accessible form of green energy. South Africa is already among the top ten leading producers of solar energy, while Rwanda is home to the first solar power station, which opened in 2014. There are also plans to construct large power stations in Ghana and Uganda. Russia and African countries have the opportunity to examine a new area of mutually beneficial cooperation, based specifically on long-term strategies. Russia is an experienced player on the global energy market, offering huge potential in terms of developing, constructing, and commissioning energy facilities such as dams, nuclear power plants, grid operating companies etc., as well as in exporting and transporting energy. Russia offers a number of competitive advantages as a partner, including experience in implementing large-scale energy programmes across vast territories, and constructing grids (something the African continent is in particular need of).