Developing Infrastructure for Economic Growth and Improved Living Standards
In line with a presidential decree, the Government of the Russian Federation is drawing up a comprehensive plan in partnership with regional administrations to modernize and expand critical transport infrastructure. Experts have claimed that annual investments of around RUB 2 trillion are needed for infrastructure. At the same time, innovative and digital technologies are to be implemented, greatly improving business and public services. Fulfilling such ambitious objectives requires a coordination of efforts between infrastructure industries, the regions, equipment manufacturers, and the financial sector. How will fulfilling priority infrastructure development objectives affect regional policy? Which tasks will be undertaken by companies? What sources of funding for priority projects have been identified? Do Russian companies possess sufficient expertise to fulfil infrastructure development objectives, and what overseas experience and technology could prove beneficial? Which countries experience was drawn upon when preparing the governments comprehensive plan?
Presentation of the Heat Supply System Efficiency Rating of the Russian Regions
In 2018, the Ministry of Energy of the Russian Federation continued their collaboration with the regions and expert community to draw up a heat supply system efficiency rating for Russian localities. Ratings of municipalities take place at the regional level, while ratings of regions take place at the national level. The rating evaluates efforts made by government bodies of all levels to create an environment conducive to a reliable, incident-free heat supply, a reduction in fuel consumption, a reduction in heat losses, the application of modern technologies in thermal networks and for use by the consumer, the updating of heat supply plans, and the implementation of the incorporated action plan. It does not only aim to measure a companys success, but also to identify and publicize best practices. Among those attending the event will be representatives of regional ministries of energy, housing and utilities; energy companies, and the expert community. Discussions will focus on the results of the rating, and experience will also be shared on applying best practices in heat supply system management and in implementing modern technologies in the industry.
Risks in Modern Global Energy and How to Manage Them
Issues for discussion:
• Identifying future opportunities, long-term risks, and negative trends in the oil and gas sector
• Regulatory restrictions and areas for development in energy markets (trade wars and extension of sanctions)
• Insurance as a mechanism for protecting the property interests of energy companies on the global market
• Economic digitalization and ensuring information security in the energy industry.
The Energy Potential of the Arctic: Implementing Projects and Developing Logistics
The Russian Arctic contains almost 25% of the countrys recoverable reserves of oil and gas condensate, and more than 72% of its gas reserves. The development of cross-industry networks incorporating sea ports, modern infrastructure, and high-tech services will ensure that hydrocarbon production will grow in the Arctic region. This will help replace declining production in regions of traditional development after 2020 and help bolster the countrys energy security. Cargo traffic on the Northern Sea Route is planned to reach 80 million tonnes by 2024. This figure is expected to be reached largely as the result of transporting raw hydrocarbons in order to implement a number of projects, specifically Yamal LNG, Arctic LNG 2, Arctic Gates (Novoportovskoye field), and Prirazlomnoye field. Water transportation for other fields in the Yamal-Gydan Peninsula, offshore areas in the Arctic, and northern Russia could also be organized in the future. What promising hydrocarbon field development projects exist, and how long would it take to develop them? Which projects can be implemented using the existing transport infrastructure of the Arctic, and where could it be further developed, specifically with regard to pipelines and rail links? What are the prospects for developing the Northern Sea Route as the main sea transport corridor? To what extent could remote reserves be used in the energy mix of the Russian Arctic?
The Development of Pricing on the International Oil Market: New Benchmarks, Currencies and Settlement Technologies
The current pricing mechanism based on existing benchmarks has recently come in for criticism as a method of ascertaining a fair market price for oil. This is due to a significant fall in output at fields which largely account for the best-known price benchmark. However, new benchmarks are coming to the fore, based on more stable oil flows from the point of view of production volumes and quality characteristics. More accurate pricing will also facilitate the creation of benchmarks through direct quoting. There is an ever-increasing trend for pricing to instead be based on exchange contracts, in order to best reflect market value. Aspects related to settlements in national currencies and applying blockchain technologies are of no less importance. Will the leading benchmarks change over the next 35 years? Will the CIF and FOB markets lose ground? When will oil companies show more interest in direct quoting of Russian oil? What role will quoting in yuan play with regards Chinese petroleum storage reservoirs? How will the global crude oil market change as digital platforms and blockchain technologies develop?
Energy of the Future: Three Drivers of Sustainable Development
The process of digital transition in the power industry, which will not only improve the efficiency of traditional energy systems, but also reduce maintenance costs and ensure greater security of energy supply, has been recognized by the advanced countries of the world as an important goal on the path towards a new global energy system.
Speakers at the session will assess changes in the level of implementation of digital technologies during the period from 2010 to 2020, and consider what stage of development digitalization has reached in energy distribution and transmission systems. How long will it be before a low-carbon future arrives? What share of the car industry will carbon-free fuels achieve in the coming years and how will this shift affect economic performance? What new approaches to generating and transforming energy are being developed now, and how can they be applied in such fields as medicine, construction, etc.
Energy Systems of the Future: The Vector of Development
The global economy is facing new challenges, and energy systems are undergoing radical change. This shift is called the «3D energy model» because it may be represented by three trends: decarbonization, decentralization, and digitalization. Of course, the transition from fossil fuels and centralized electricity supply from a few stations to a large number of distributed and renewable energy sources, such as wind and solar energy, will not happen overnight. However, the traditional energy sector, which once consisted of several large power plants with downward transmission and distribution of energy, is now changing fundamentally. A growing number of energy producers and consumers involved in production are being forced to completely reconsider how energy systems are managed. The level of complexity of energy systems is increasing significantly, and the management of digital data is one of the ways in which this infrastructure may be controlled. Millions of new smart grids and decentralized power generating units increase the energy infrastructures level of complexity significantly. To cope with the increasing complexity of energy systems, electrical networks must be made smarter, harnessing the opportunities presented by digitalization. Modern technologies are able to analyse production processes and generate terabytes of data. How can this information be of most use to your business? Digital technology penetrates all branches of industry. Energy companies are looking for comprehensive methods to protect their assets from cyberattacks. Making the right decision and choosing the right partner is of critical importance. How can a company be protected from potential threats? Today, data is everywhere. For companies, data has become the most important and critical resource in the age of the internet of things. To uncover its full potential, data streams need to be converted into useful information. In order for this to happen, data from countless sources must be collected and analysed. This is a highly complex task. How can MindSphere, an open operating platform based on cloud technologies and the internet of things, help with this? Does the Russian market need new solutions for large, centralized generation?
Global Energy 2035: Overcoming Barriers and Consolidating Opportunities
The world today has entered the fourth industrial revolution: all aspects of life are changing, and energy is no exception. World energy markets are currently undergoing a profound transformation that is significantly changing the volume and structure of demand and leading to increased competition across the globe. Technological advances are only serving to increase the pace of change. Todays key trends include the evolution of the energy mix in favour of cleaner sources; the increasingly prominent role played by the climate agenda (and consequently, the development of renewable energy sources); the all-pervading digitalization of life and the economy, and the development of technologies; and the globalization of the fuel and energy sector, and with it, the increasing accessibility of resources. And above all is the question of the petrol station versus the power outlet. What future awaits traditional energy? How can global energy security be ensured in a such a volatile economic and political climate?
New opportunities and hidden threats associated with the fourth industrial revolution. How can new trends in the global energy market be predicted?
• The implementation of new energy resource extraction and production technologies to maintain competitiveness. The current status in Russia.
• Gas as a solution to the issue of climate change and an alternative to renewable energy sources in the near future.
• The sustainable energy of the futures fuel mix: Russia and the world. Current threats to the oil demand.
• Tackling energy poverty and increasing energy access across the globe.
Open Meeting Grid Digitization in Practice: Routes and Solutions
In Russia and other technologically advanced countries, the most forward-thinking energy companies are carrying out research and development in adopting smart grids, the distribution of smart energy, new energy storage technologies, consumer services, and the energy internet. In Russia, the digital economy programme has been ratified and Rosseti has been set the task of becoming one of the drivers of this process, which will generate a significant impetus for other market participants and bring overall efficiency in this sector to a qualitatively new level in turn increasing the reliability of electricity supplies to consumers and boosting investor appeal. What achievements have been made in digitizing Russias electricity network and the companies that operate in this market? Is there already a discernible economic impact from adopting new technologies? What difficulties do companies encounter when they are implementing digitization strategies? What further steps towards the digital transformation of the electricity grid and sector are needed?
The Strategy of Import Substitution in the Oil and Gas Industry: National Projects and Digital Technology
In 2015 the Ministry of Energy of the Russian Federation ratified a set of measures aimed at replacing imports in the countrys oil refining and petrochemical industries. These measures, which encompass targets to reduce the share of imports by 2020, are currently being implemented. A national project is under way, entitled «The establishment of a range of domestically produced technologies and high-tech equipment to develop reserves in the Bazhenov Formation». It is not only focused on the potential to process 760 million tonnes of hydrocarbon reserves, but also to facilitate the countrys self-sufficiency in exploring and developing non-traditional oil and gas reserves. In addition, two new projects have been ratified: «Creating hydroconversion technology for petroleum feedstock with the aim of obtaining high-quality fuel, oil, and feedstock for petrochemical processes» and «Fine refining catalysts for petroleum feedstock (based on aluminium oxide)». Oil and gas companies need to rapidly transfer to digital technologies in order for the industry to grow. This includes processes outlined in the plan to replace imports of software, which was ratified by the Ministry of Digital Development, Communications and Mass Media of the Russian Federation in 2015. Under this plan, the share of software imported for the energy industry will be cut to 70% by 2020, and 50% by 2025. How effective is the National Project format as a platform to trial equipment and technology? What kind of testing centres need to be created to develop technologies for geological surveying, and for exploring and extracting hard-to-recover hydrocarbon deposits? What are the intermediary results in import substitution for the oil refining and petrochemical industries? What does a standardization system provide as an import substitution tool in Russia? How can experience from the Cyber Hydrofracking competition be replicated in the development of Russian application software?
Gas-powered and Electric Vehicles in Russia: Possible Development Rates and Strategies
The rising numbers of cars in the world means that the burden on the planets environment is increasing, creating the demand for new types of transport and fuel. Vehicle manufacturers and innovators are actively working on creating infrastructure and new models of electric vehicles, as well as liquefied and compressed natural gas vehicles. In Russia, plans are also being implemented to develop the charging infrastructure for electric vehicles. In many regions, public transport and municipal vehicles already run on natural gas. International experience shows that it is possible to accelerate the speed and expansion of the alternative petrol/diesel fuel market significantly, due to the rapid development of infrastructure on key transport corridors and in large metropolitan areas, tougher requirements for purchases by public and municipal organizations in terms of public transport and the housing and utilities sector, regulation of how public transport is organized, and the subsidizing of vehicle conversion. What incentives could the Government of the Russian Federation support in order to achieve more ambitious goals for the development of the gas-powered and electric car market? What regulatory restrictions impede the wider introduction of alternative transport? What is the expected effect on the country? Are vehicle manufacturers and freight and passenger transport companies interested in changing the strategy for developing the market? What are the challenges facing the regions?
Degasification, Extraction, and Disposal of Coalbed Methane
Coalbed methane poses a serious industrial and environmental problem. It leads to accidents causing fatalities, destruction, and company shutdowns. There is a need to conduct a systemic and constant analysis of international experience and to collect information on degasification, extraction, and disposal of coalbed methane and enclosing strata. A consolidated database of best international practice is also required, and would help improve coal mine safety in Russia and reduce methane emissions. What are the aims and objectives of Russias international Centre for the Study and Advancement of Best Practices in the Degasification, Extraction, and Disposal of Coalbed Methane? What methods, technologies, and technical resources to extract methane gas mixtures appropriate for disposal are required today? What is the benefit of disposing of and using coalbed methane in Russias energy mix, compared to traditional natural gas sources?
Russias heat supply network is being developed in line with Federal Law No.190-FZ dated 2010. This law lays the foundations for the economic relationships between all the participants of Russias heat supply market along the entire supply chain: from initial production to final consumers. The law «On Heat Supply» forms the basis for the new model of this sector, which is designed to attract capital and increase efficiency throughout the full production line. What are the development prospects for cities heat supply systems across the country? What is the optimum configuration for targeted investment in and the free pricing of thermal energy? Are existing regulatory tools (alt-boilers, benchmarks, long-term regulatory periods, concessions) compatible with major investment in heat supply system development? Can the countrys heat supply system become a leader in terms of large-scale infrastructure reforms in the context of the May Decree issued by the President of the Russian Federation?
Each year, the Global Energy Prize honours outstanding achievements in energy research and technology from around the world which make a contribution to the promotion of energy efficiency and environmental security in the interest of all mankind. According to the IREG Observatory on Academic Ranking and Excellence, the Global Energy Prize is one of 99 leading international academic awards in terms of prestige and significance, and the only Russian award in the list. The Global Energy Prize is also included in the official list of the International Congress of Distinguished Awards (ICDA). The ICDAs prestige rating lists the Global Energy Prize in the Mega Prize category for its laudable goals, exemplary practice, and prize fund. The Global Energy Prize award ceremony is one of the most noteworthy annual events in global science. The ceremony is intended to emphasize the role of Russia, which unites the international energy community under the slogan «Energy of the future created by knowledge». The outstanding scientists to win the Global Energy Prize 2018 include Professor Martin Green (Australia) for his research, development, and educational work in photovoltaics, helping to reduce expenses and increase the efficiency and costs of solar photovoltaics; and Academician Sergey Alekseenko (Russia) for his research and development in thermal power engineering and heat transfer systems, enhancing mankinds resource potential.
Prospects for Partnership between Russia and the EU in Energy and Energy Efficiency
Cooperation between Russia and the European Union in energy and energy efficiency is crucial to sustainable global economic development. Russia is already a reliable supplier of environmentally friendly energy supplies to European consumers, and is assisting the EUs transition to an economy with a minimal climate footprint. In 2018, Russia and the EU set ambitious targets to improve energy efficiency by 2030. Through working together, these two major markets will bolster global energy security, technological modernization, and improve living conditions through the use of smart city systems. What should be done to get the most out of cooperation between Russia and the European Union in energy and energy efficiency? What role can business play in expanding cooperation? How will the ensuing transition to a digital economy help improve energy conservation in Russia and the EU? What European innovations could be particularly in demand in Russia, and what is the potential of scientific and technical cooperation in energy and energy efficiency? Do steps need to be taken to synchronize Russian and EU legislation in technological and environmental regulation in order to maximize the synergistic effect of energy efficiency policy?
Increasing the Efficiency of Oil Production: Responding to the Challenges
Hydrocarbon extraction is currently declining in Western Siberia, the countrys main oil and gas region. This is in spite of significant increases in expenditure and work. This decline can be explained by worsening geological conditions in the development of fields. Experts are predicting this trend to continue, which will lead to increased oil production costs and declining profitability. In order to avoid a fall in investment activity in the Russian hydrocarbon extraction segment, a range of mineral extraction tax benefits and special export duty rates have been put forward. Whats more, an experiment is due to begin on 1 January 2019, whereby a tax will be levied on additional income from hydrocarbon production, in which assessment will be partially based on the real extraction economy. That said, over the last six years the fiscal regime affecting the oil industry has worsened overall. For oil production in traditional regions not qualifying for benefits (around 60% of the total), this is even more apparent. Frequent changes to tax legislation and the introduction of additional levies have played a part in this regard. Crucially, this is in sharp contrast with the fiscal policy affecting major oil producers around the globe, where additional stimuli are being introduced and the tax burden reduced in order to accelerate the monetization of oil reserves. Russia has one of the highest levels of taxation in the world for oil production companies. Deductions are on average 68% of vertically integrated oil company revenues. Today, some of the most promising areas of investment in oil production are in developing hard-to-recover reserves (in the Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Area, for example, they account for 33% of all reserves) and enhanced oil recovery methods (which enable the industrial development of as-yet untapped oil reservoirs). However, these areas of increasing oil production efficiency are fairly costly, and are unprofitable in the current fiscal environment. The development of fundamental approaches and areas for boosting investment in oil production and methods of intensifying extraction is therefore a priority for the Russian oil industry.
Topics for discussion:
1. The overall state of the Russian oil production industry, current challenges, and the need to encourage increased production.
2. The introduction of a windfall profit tax on hydrocarbon extraction.
3. Encouraging enhanced oil recovery methods to fully realize resource potential.
4. The potential to extract oil in traditional regions.
5. Encouraging oil production in fields containing hard-to-recover reserves.
The EnergyNet NTI roadmap was approved in September 2016 by the Presidential Economic Modernization and Innovative Development Council Presidium. It aims to develop Russian smart energy technologies and help Russian companies lead the way on global future energy markets over the next 1520 years. The roadmap has already resulted in a number of pilot projects being implemented, improvements made to the regulatory framework and technical regulations, and a range of measures being taken to develop workforce potential. At the same time, new technology is developing across the globe at an ever-increasing rate. It will define the technological profile for equipment markets, software, engineering, and energy industry services. While this will magnify challenges for the Russian energy industry, it will also create additional opportunities to implement the roadmap and achieve overall innovative development. What results have already been achieved in the implementation of the roadmap? Which pathways to increasing the effectiveness of implementing the roadmap have matured in light of accumulated experience? What can be done to make energy companies and development institutions more engaged in the implementation of the roadmap? What additional stimuli and government support measures are required to increase the pace at which promising high-tech projects are implemented? How should measures outlined in the roadmap be transformed in this regard?
One of the most technologically conservative industries coal mining is also undergoing an industrial revolution. This revolution is largely being driven by information technology. The current technological revolution under way in numerous countries around the globe calls for the implementation of the so called Industry 4.0 Programme. As one of the fundamental areas of this programme, digital modelling will be applied in production processes, including through employing relevant data obtained using a virtual model of the surrounding physical world. How is coal being brought into the digital era? How is the digital transformation of coal production progressing? What stage is the coal industry digitalization process currently at? To what extent are coal companies IT strategies in line with todays requirements for the global coal mining sector?
A City Without Accidents: Reliable Engineering Systems and High-Quality Utilities as a Foundation for Creating a Comfortable Environment
The most important factor determining the comfort level of an urban environment is the reliability of its communications engineering and the quality of its utility services. A number of cities have been able to achieve above-average results, resulting in accident-free operations, a reduction in the number of summer days without hot water and improvement in other services: water supply and treatment, gas supply, and the organization of billing for services and resources. Energy efficiency has increased at the same time as environmental impact has been reduced. What experiences can help inform the benchmarking of a citys engineering systems and the quality levels of its utility services? How do reliability and quality indicators vary between Russian cities of various sizes? What best practices could become mandatory in the future? Which methods are being used for risk management?
Alternative Energy for Transport: Present and Future
Russian Railways is undergoing a period of transformation, in which particular attention is being paid to innovative technologies powered by alternative sources of energy. As environmental directives become stricter, the company is actively working on developing and implementing gas motor traction rolling stock and traction rolling stock that utilizes batteries. When it comes to its infrastructure facilities, the company is increasingly implementing innovative environmentally clean technologies, shifting their facilities from getting heat and electricity from mazut and coal to using liquified natural gas and successfully implementing cutting-edge technologies such as heat pumps and solar collectors. As the commodity market for liquified natural gas (LNG) grows, Russian Railways has developed and is implementing a programme for switching automobile transport to LNG and creating a new generation of rail and switch locomotives powered by LNG.
• Batteries when and where they will appear in Russian Railways?
• The creation of a switch locomotive with a battery for working in passenger stations in major cities.
• Heat pumps a new trend or the future of distributed generation?
Every single urban resident is impacted by the quality and reliability of heat supplies. In recent years we have seen major energy companies disengage from businesses related to heat supplies, because they were loss-making. This creates a complex situation for regional and municipal authorities, forcing them to find other solutions to this issue using state funds and emergency measures. Crises occur more and more frequently, and that means there is a need for consistent, comprehensive approaches to resolving them and more importantly preventing them. What measures need to be taken at federal, regional, and municipal levels? What positive experience from crisis resolution and prevention can be recommended to regions and municipalities?
A tax reform is under way involving the gradual abolition of customs duties for oil and petroleum products, and an increase in tax on extracting mineral resources. In order to compensate for oil refineries falling revenues, a return scheme for oil excise is to be put in place, with primary beneficiaries being plants producing car petrol for Russian consumers or providing raw materials for the petrochemistry industry. In order to curtail price rises for automotive fuel, a dampening mechanism is being implemented in the domestic market. An opportunity to sign modernization agreements will also be available, with the aim of modernizing oil refining.
What will the effect of this tax reform be on consumers in Russia and the EAEU?
How effective are the proposed mechanisms to protect against rising oil product prices?
What is the destination model for the tax and customs system as it pertains to Russias oil refining industry?
Are the prerequisites in place to increase investment in the development of Russias oil refining industry?
Improving the Environmental Impact of the Coal Industry: Current Conditions and Possible Measures
Despite the positive results achieved by environmental protection measures in recent years, the ecological situation in the coal sector remains critical. In order to reduce the negative impact of coal production companies, it is necessary for them to work systemically with regional governments to transition to best available technologies. How is this transition progressing? Will comprehensive ecological permits serve as a consolidated document to regulate the level at which coal companies impact the environment? Which areas of Russias environmental legislation need to be modernized with regards coal production? What problems exist in terms of decommissioning underground and surface mines in light of current Russian legislation? What is the effect of currently operating and closing companies on the hydrogeological and geodynamic situation in the region?
Energy Efficiency and the Environment: Two Pillars of the Electricity Industry of the Future
Economic growth involves additional costs, which in turn create an extra environmental load for cities. Minimizing this load is an important part of the development of any modern city. Energy-efficient solutions make capacities available for new projects without damaging the environment. Less efficient power sources are removed in order to increase the electricity sectors efficiency and reduce emissions of pollutants into the atmosphere. Cutting emissions can also be achieved by other measures, such as installing thermal power plant filtration systems, and by not using back-up fuels such as residual fuel oil or coal. Moscows electricity network is highly environmentally friendly: natural gas accounts for close to 100% of the Russian capitals fuel mix. Using natural gas as a fuel prevents multiple pollutants from being emitted into the citys atmosphere. What energy-efficient solutions are deployed by public utility services? How can we calculate the impact of adopting energy-saving technologies at facilities where power consumption depends on weather conditions? How can we minimize the environmental load of the power supply network on the city?
Energy Transition in the Asia-Pacific: New Challenges and Opportunities for Regional Cooperation
The global energy landscape is changing, presenting both opportunities and challenges for the Asia Pacific region. As projected by the International Energy Agency in their New Policies Scenario, global energy needs will rise more slowly than in the past, but still increase by 30% between today and 2040. The Asia-Pacific region will account for two-thirds of global energy growth. It has been recognized that fossil fuels will remain a dominant energy source in the near future. At the same time, new approaches to energy diversification are emerging from recent energy trends such as the rapid deployment and falling costs of clean and renewable energy technologies, growing electrification, increasing concerns about climate change and environmental degradation, and increased emphasis on more service-oriented economies in the region. Further effective measures and actions will be necessary in the energy transition. These will encompass achieving a greater share of cleaner fossil fuels in the energy mix, such as natural gas; developing new and renewable energy sources, and boosting energy efficiency. What different approaches to transforming the energy sector in the region have governments and experts from Russia and the Asia-Pacific identified? How does regional cooperation in the Asia Pacific help broaden and increase measures taken on the national level to meet the 2030 sustainable development agenda, in particular with regards to SDG 7: ensuring access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all?
Meeting of Chief Engineers of Electric Grids Digitalization of the Electrical Grid
Todays need to digitalize the grid is predicated on the transition of production and transport to a single type of energy (electricity); the proliferation of distributed generation across the globe; the creation of microgrids; and the development of electricity and renewable storage devices which a consumer can install themselves, thereby becoming an electricity producer. Digitalization does not only translate to clear benefits to the consumer, but also extra costs borne by grid companies, and the need to change professional training programmes. How will self-operated and self-diagnosable digital electric grids affect reliability, expenses for the chief engineer, and quality of services for the population over the medium term? What needs to be done to ensure the greatest possible effect from digital grids from the very first years of their implementation? Will the rewards of digitalization be greatest in large cities or remote settlements? What competencies will an energy professional require to create, operate and repair digital grids? Should they be IT specialists with knowledge of energy, or energy specialists with knowledge of IT? Is a «digital electrician» required if digital grids can work without a persons input?
The Development of Independent Services and Engineering in the Subsoil Resource Management Sector
Companies in the oil and gas service sector develop deposits and directly extract oil and gas. The current state and future development potential of these companies can therefore strongly affect the stability of Russias oil and gas processing industry. The degree to which oil- and gas-related services are developed has a bearing on technological opportunities to maintain and expand hydrocarbon extraction, expenses borne by oil and gas companies, and consequently, the competitiveness and reliability of the Russian oil and gas sector as a whole. Declining oil prices, together with financial and technological sanctions, have had a serious impact on service companies, and should prompt greater consideration of their problems. What support measures are required to increase the competitiveness of oil-related services, both in domestic and overseas markets? Which areas of the legal and regulatory framework governing relations between major consumers and providers of services need improvement? What are the prospects for replacing imports of equipment and innovative technology in high-tech oil-related services?
Work is well under way on new operating rules for heat supply facilities and heat consumers, as outlined in the Russian Federal Law «On Heat Supply». In the 15 years since the old rules were approved, the heat supply industry in Russia has changed dramatically. The new document will take these changes into account, which concern the improvement of heat supply management; the establishment of an institution to unite heat suppliers; and an increased role and independence for heads of operating companies and owners of heat supply facilities and heat consumers. What are chief engineers expecting from the planned changes to the regulation of the sector? What can be done before the new rules come into effect? How can equipment operation be effectively organized in line with the new rules, in addition to work with the energy supervision body responsible for checking for compliance?
Light and Colour in the City: Safety, Aesthetics, and Energy Efficiency
Street lighting is an important part of creating a pleasant urban environment. The correct choice of lighting for various functional spaces helps solve a range of challenges, from increasing safety on the streets at night, to creating a festive atmosphere during special occasions. When attractively illuminated, a citys sights become even more appealing to tourists, and new technologies are making it possible to increase the level of lighting without impacting energy consumption. Moscow has recently implemented a light and colour concept for the city, with visual comfort and artistic expression placed at the forefront. It is now one of the five best-lit cities in the world. Elsewhere, separate lighting projects are being successfully implemented in St Petersburg, Kazan, Vladimir, and numerous other cities in Russia. What experience can lie at the foundation when creating a citys lighting environment? What lighting standards and targets can be applied for cities of various sizes in Russia? What are the advantages of modern light sources and light management systems, and how might they be developed in the future?