A draft concept for securing the rights and freedoms of people in Russia’s digital realm has been drawn up by the Council for the Development of Civil Society and Human Rights under the President of the Russian Federation in cooperation with the Government of the Russian Federation. The document was drafted in pursuance of the fourth item under clause 3 of the list of presidential directives No. Pr-133 dated 28 January 2021. It offers a response to challenges and threats to the rights and freedoms of the individual in relation to the complete digitalization of social relations. Today, the digital environment is highly complex, making it difficult to predict how it will develop. In spite of this, the digital realm in Russia has evolved at great speed. These factors have raised some concern among the human rights community. Indeed, digitalization processes are moving so rapidly that it can be hard for society, the public, businesses, and government bodies to keep up, leading to the creation of a rift. This gives rise to increased opportunities for fraud, corruption, and other crimes in the digital realm. It also enables transnational corporations that control global digital platforms to promote their own economic and political interests. The need to counter cyberthreats in the interests of national security is outlined in both the Russian constitution, and Russia’s strategic planning documents; however, these threats are not specified. What’s more, the aforementioned documents do not set out principles, goals, objectives, and mechanisms for ensuring the protection of human and civil rights and freedoms in Russia’s digital realm. The proposed draft concept addresses these problems and can serve as a foundation for the further implementation of Russia’s legal policy with regard to digitalization.